2011-02-28 19:00:00 -0500
Strip 1.5.0 has been released and is available now from the iTunes Store as a free update. We think this is the best release of STRIP yet. It contains myriad small fixes to enhance the user experience and correct application behavior and a few more impressive updates:
- Support for staying unlocked on multi-tasking devices
- Support for landscape-orientation for easier data entry
- Updated graphics for Retina displays
- Updated SQLCipher to version 1.1.8
The various other updates:
- In-app upgrade to unlimited (no more STRIP Lite)
- Current customers who bought STRIP before 1.5 are grandfathered
- Field behavior changes fixed to take effect immediately
- Database info screen now includes Ditto replica info
- Password Generator sets controls to last-use settings
- Last-use settings are stored encrypted in SQLCipher
- Fixed display of lower distenders in fields values
- Field labels are no longer lower-cased on display
- Fixed default icon display for newly imported entries and categories
As you can see from the second listing above, we’ve made a change to how we allow people to try STRIP for free before making a purchase. Nothing has really changed for our existing customers, who are grandfathered to ensure the app is not limited in anyway.
Strip Sync update required
This version of Strip, 1.5.0, is incompatible with earlier releases of Strip Sync. As of today, an update is available for both Strip Sync for Mac OS X and Strip Sync for Windows. If you already have Strip Sync installed, simply fire up the program and it should offer to update and relaunch. If not, or if you’d like to install the software directly yourself, you can download the updated version below:
As always, if you have any questions or run into any issues, please get in touch.
2011-01-31 19:00:00 -0500
Databases and EBS: What you need to know.
Just a few things that you should know about EBS.
EBS is slow
All your data travels over a network before it reaches a disk, or data from thedisk reaches your instance. This means that writes and reads can be slow orintermittent at times.
Further compounding the issue, your SAN is shared with hundreds (thousands?) ofother users! While these machines are some high powered “big iron”, it stillmeans you’re going to have I/O contention and a number of other issues.
Even further, your disk access is metered! This means all those operations aretickling tiny little counters. This isn’t a lot in reality, but it all adds up!
On the bright side, EC2 instances have a lot of RAM. Let’s play to the field!
PostgreSQL Configuration and Use
This might sound a little preachy and redundant, but here goes:
No database should go without being properly indexed, from head to toe, witheverything you query upon and the vast majority of the combinations you use inyour queries. Yes, write performance will suffer, but we’re about to renderthat much less troublesome by sending the writes to RAM as frequently aspossible.
Less time spent searching tables = less disk access = greater performance.
Build queries to be sent over the network
If you’re doing anything with an ORM, you’re probably guilty of this at leastonce or twice: building your queries to be sent to the app to be handled later.You know those kooky DBA types that say “do everything in the database”, well,they’re on to something here.
Well, ‘lo and behold you do something like this:
When something like this:
Would have not only likely saved you a lot of computational cycles, but quite abit of network traffic is reduced, and continues to pay off as your tables growin size. This happens a lot in the rails community, unfortunately.
(Yes, I’m aware this example is a bit contrived. You could easily prepare thatquery with find() or ARel’s composition methods.)
The skinny: the less you do in the database the more you’re spending on networkresources and time to deliver your result. The database is probably working Ntimes as hard, too, to deliver your responses.
Even if it takes the “pretty” out of your code, do it in the database.
Shared Buffer Cache
Shared Buffer Cache is the meat and potatoes of PostgreSQL tuning. Increasingthis value will greatly decrease the frequency at which your data is flushed todisk. An EC2 Large Instance will happily accomodate a 4GB PostgreSQLinstallation which would be more than enough for lots of reasonably traffickedapplications.
Why is this important? The less time it spends writing to disk, or the lessfrequently it writes to disk, can mean a lot for your application’sperformance!
Database backups on the cloud
We have a few options for backing things up. As usual with redundancy, the bestoption is to… be redundant. (See what I did there?) Using a strategy thatallows us the best of both worlds.
You’ve already seen our snapshot script:
Which iterates over your volumes and maintains the last 5 backups.Here is a detailed account of the script’s function.
We use the script, amongst other things, to back up our database partitions,which are composed of the database master, the transaction log, and the backupsof the WAL.
Write Ahead Logging and Continuous Archiving for Point in Time Recoveryis a pretty sticky topic and you would do yourself well to read that whole document.
Instead of repeating it here verbatim, I’ll tell you what our backup script does:
This script manages the archiving of three tarballs:
- base.tar.bz2, the base database system
- full-wal.tar.bz2, the whole WAL for the last day.
- pit-wal.tar.bz2, the point in time portion of the WAL.
The major difference between ‘full-wal’ and ‘pit-wal’ is that at the time thefirst backup is taken (the night of the backup), the data may not be fullycommitted to disk. Therefore, we write as much as we can to the ‘pit-wal’ filefor the purposes of crashes that day. The ‘full-wal’, as you might suspect, isthe fully written representation and is actually written out a day after thebackup occurred.
In a recovery scenario, both of these tarballs would be merged with theexisting WAL files in order of ‘pit-wal’, then ‘full-wal’ would be unpacked.
The WAL directory itself has some data hidden in the filenames, let’s checkthat out:
2011-02-01 09:05 000000030000000300000026
2011-02-01 09:05 000000030000000300000026.000076B8.backup
2011-02-01 10:12 000000030000000300000027
2011-02-01 11:30 000000030000000300000028
2011-02-01 12:57 000000030000000300000029
2011-02-01 14:10 00000003000000030000002A
2011-02-01 14:58 00000003000000030000002B
2011-02-01 15:30 00000003000000030000002C
The filenames themselves hold two important pieces of information:
- The first 8 characters of the filename are the recovery version. As we’re good little children and test our backups, this is at version 3.
- The last 8 characters of the filename are ordered, you can see this by comparing the times and the filenames themselves.
- If there is an extension, that is a demarcation point where pg_start_backup()/pg_stop_backup() was invoked. This is what we use to create the ‘full-wal’ tarball.
As for the backup structure? Well, here’s a sneak peek:
2011-01-28 09:05 2011-01-27.09:00:01/
2011-01-29 09:05 2011-01-28.09:00:01/
2011-01-30 09:05 2011-01-29.09:00:01/
2011-01-31 09:05 2011-01-30.09:00:01/
2011-02-01 09:05 2011-01-31.09:00:01/
2011-02-01 09:07 2011-02-01.09:00:01/
$yesterday calls just generate these filenames. At the endof the script, we see this idiom:
ls -1d * | sort -rn | tail -n +15 | xargs rm -vr
Which is a way of saying, “show us the last 15 dirs and delete the rest”. Thiskeeps our filesystem size low and we
rsync these files nightly.
sed usage here is a little tricky but not anything incomprehensible. Basically,
breakpoint=`ls *.backup | sort -r | head -n1 | sed -e 's/\..*$//'
Finds the latest backup file. Now,
arline=`ls | sort | sed -ne "/^$breakpoint$/ =" `
archive=`ls | sort | head -n $arline`
Uses that as a demarcation point to determine the archive files. Those filesare archived and removed and result in
full-wal. The rest leftover result in
2011-01-30 19:00:00 -0500
EBS — or the Amazon Elastic Block Store — is the way you get persistence on most EC2 instances. Let's talk about what EBS is good for, what it's not good for, and why it matters to the EC2 consumer.
EBS is basically a volume system with dynamic attachment. You go into the EC2 system, select an EBS "volume", and attach it to an instance. There are additional ways, such as EBS rooting, to use EBS volumes.
EBS is implemented at Amazon via a Storage Area Network (SAN) that is dynamically attached to your instances. Each EBS "volume" you attach is a portion of the disks that make up the SAN; a portion that can and will be allocated sparsely.
This has performance drawbacks. EBS can be very slow and unresponsive at points (there are no availability guarantees on EC2 for any of its products), so it's important that your EBS-related task can handle intermittent outages even if very small. For the most part, things that need read performance or will block on writes will suffer. There are ways you can mitigate it, such as "striping" volumes, but in practice this is very troublesome.
What's the difference between EBS root and the instance store?
EBS rooting is where the device that your root-level filesystem lives on is an EBS volume. This is different because instance stores are ethereal, and will disappear after the machine is stopped. Therefore, it is wise to use EBS rooted machines for machines you want to last.
What's the difference between an EBS volume and a traditional physical disk?
In particular, the major (other than the provisioning, of course) issue is that EBS volumes will not necessarily be available at boot time, so you must mitigate that for any non-root volumes.
How does Zetetic use EBS?
We use it for two roles:
- Database Servers (with a high ram setting)
- Support machines (monitoring, repositories, wiki, ticket tracker, etc)
We'll talk about the database management in the next article; our support machines are very simple in execution but require a lot of configuration, so automating them is a bit of a bear.
Why not run everything as EBS root?
You could do that, but EBS is billed on a per-transaction (writes and reads) basis, and then there is the performance issue. EBS-rooted volumes additionally have a reboot penalty which (at the time of writing) is a dollar. That can get expensive quick! It's probably best to stick to EBS rooting where configuration management is hard and leave the rest to instance stores.
Hopefully this article has been a decent overview of EBS; next time we will cover PostgreSQL management in the cloud!
2011-01-26 19:00:00 -0500
On January 22 we released Codebook 1.5.1 to the iTunes App Store. This is the best version of Codebook yet, with many bug fixes, interface enhancements, and a really cool new feature: Sync with Dropbox. Read on to find out what’s new in our secure notebook app.
Sync with Dropbox
Codebook 1.5 has a new Sync tab that provides a means for you to upload and sync your data with an encrypted replica stored in your Dropbox account. Simply enter your Dropbox account information and start a sync, and when it’s all done you’ll see that you’ve got a new folder named “Codebook” in your Dropbox account, containing your encrypted database file.
This resolves a number of long-standing feature requests from our users. No longer do you need to rely on the unreliable iTunes to keep a backup of your most important data. Not only that, but with an encrypted copy up on Dropbox, you have an incredibly easy means of restoring your data if it is somehow lost. Sync often!
But we didn’t just stop there. Thanks to our Ditto replication technology, the Sync feature allows you to share your data across multiple devices. If you use Codebook on your iPhone and an iPad, you can use the sync feature to replicate your data across both of them (or any other iOS devices you’re rocking). Just run Sync and Codebook will take care of the rest.
Note: The Sync feature is only available to users who purchase the Unlimited Upgrade inside Codebook. More detailed information about how Sync works is available on our Codebook FAQ.
Edit Screen Updated
This update to Codebook is all about details. If you remember what the edit screen looked like in Codebook 1.4 or 1.3, you’ll find this screen has seen some serious improvements, mostly to the effect of putting things where they ought to be and making it look and feel better. For instance, the background no longer squishes and resizes when the keyboard is revealed and hidden!
The new toolbar at the bottom of the screen provides a new trash-icon button to delete the current note—that’s an FAQ item we can remove. Power users figured out the swipe-to-delete thing on the list view screen, but it was still a nuisance to have to pop back to the previous screen to delete the current note — you’d have to then locate the note, which was be a real nuisance. And if you weren’t hip to swipe-to-delete, it just looked like you couldn’t delete a note in Codebook.
Also on the toolbar is a relocated forward-icon for that reveals a modal menu of Sharing Options (currently just the ability to e-mail the document somewhere, unencrypted, mind you). This just seems like a much better way of making the e-mail feature available without the user accidentally kicking it off (thereby dumping plain-text data into the Mail app and potentially mailing it by mistake). More handy little buttons will probably appear in this toolbar going forward.
And then there’s the add-icon, the big + button on the right side of the navigation bar. If you need to tap in a few notes, one after the next, now you can! It was getting really annoying to have to go back to the main list view just to create a new note.
Finally, we’ve started using the tear-off-page style animation to transition the view when you hit Add or Delete on the edit screen. Being able to seamlessly transition the views like this (whether you use animation or not) is what allows us to provide these two capabilities on the edit screen without forcing the user to go back to the list view first.
Graphics for Retina Display
We finally got all the icons and background graphics updated to support the hi-res display of the iPhone 4, and it’s such a huge improvement to the app. You’ve got to see it to understand the value here, but I’ll say that if you regularly use Codebook on an iPhone 4 it will be literally relieving to your eyes to interact with this new version. To be quite honest, does anyone like using apps on the iPhone 4 that don’t support Retina Display? I sure don’t.
Rotation and Landscape Orientation
If you prefer to work in landscape mode, you’re really going to love this release of Codebook. All screens (except for the login and dropbox link screens) support landscape orientation. Codebook 1.4.7 supported landscape-orientation for note editing, but it needed some love (like stretching the text view to the expanded view to make more of the current note visible while editing!) Codebook 1.5 brings a ton of tweaks to the rotation behavior, and makes landscape orientation available on the Sync and Settings screens, too.
Version 1.5.0 had a mean little bug on the edit screen—if you switched to another application while editing, certain things happened to inaccurately re-draw the screen upon returning to Codebook that garbled the text and moved it off screen. No data was actually harmed, but it freaked people out and was obviously insanely annoying. We actually pulled the app from iTunes before more than a handful of people could install that one.
Codebook 1.4.7 suffered from a bug where the list view of notes would suddenly disappear, due to a bug in the code. The data was still there, but the app had to be restarted to work around the problem. The 1.5 series of Codebook fixes this issue.
2011-01-18 19:00:00 -0500
If you're my age (I had a MC Hammer cassette tape in elementary school) and a rubyist, chances are you've done a dash of Perl in your time. Whatever the reason may be, we are now rubyists, and writing our web applications, database interaction and daemons in Ruby.
When it comes to Perl vs. Ruby, two things immediately stand out heavily weighted as superior in Perl's court:
- Quality Assurance
Today, I'm focusing on the latter. In fact, it has been my full-time focus for the last two months outside of work, and a healthy chunk of the last two years.
"Anything your QA infrastructure can do, mine can do better" - anonymous, possibly fictional Perl programmer
And they're right. Compared to the swath of tools available to the eager Perl tester, Ruby's testing facilities look weak in comparison. Granted, compared to the programming spectrum as a whole, Ruby's not so bad. Perl, however, has an amazingly great testing credo in which several things happen even if you don't care:
- When you install a module from CPAN, it is tested before it can be installed.
- Day in day out, results from testing are reported to a site where they can be reviewed by library authors. This is SERIOUS BUSINESS.
- Good Perl programmers simply do not use libraries that aren't tested or documented. This is fact.
Note that I am not saying
use Perl; here. Perl is a fine system, but we're attracted to Ruby for a reason, right? Instead, let's make Ruby better. We need testing on a variety of environments to fix bugs in our gems. Gem authors frequently do not have the resources that, say, the whole freakin' internet has.
Gem Testers and it's companion gem, rubygems-test are an attempt to provide these things. The gem testers system is pretty crude at this point, but should be a good start. Here's what it does when you run
gem test rubygems-test:
- Runs 'rake test' for the provided gem.
- Captures the output of the system and records any exit status.
- Reports this to the Gem Testers Website
- Returns a happy little URL you can give to people when you write that angry trouble ticket about their gem.
Additionally, gem users are unfortunately more and more frequently finding themselves confronted with gems that are inadequately suited to their needs. This isn't necessarily because they are bad; maybe they haven't been maintained, or simply don't work on their preferred platform. Gem Testers is not just for gem authors; users can quickly work with the results to adequately vet the stability of a particular gem (or even a particular version). Evaluating libraries can be one of the more important things you do when starting a new application or library feature.
Josiah Kiehl and I have made a herculean effort with the help of people on the rubygems and various ruby platform teams to support a wide range of ruby platforms. All of these rubies run rubygems-test on Windows, Mac, and other POSIX systems:
- MRI 1.8
- MRI 1.9
- Rubinius 1.2
- JRuby 1.5 and 1.6beta
- Windows versions include both Luis Lavena's RubyInstaller and the 'garbagecollect' Visual C builds.
You're out of excuses
rubygems-test is easy to integrate, most likely supports your preferred platform, and gives you testing that you simply don't have time or resources to produce on your own. Heck, even gem building systems like
Ore are adding support for it. Why not take the plunge? I dare you to!
Want to contribute?
The entire project is open source, down to the Capfile. You can help us! rubygems-test and gem-testers have all the fixings for you to help!